At the 2015 Paris conference, at which the agreement was negotiated, developed countries reaffirmed their commitment to mobilize $100 billion a year to finance climate by 2020 and agreed to continue mobilizing $100 billion a year by 2025.  The commitment refers to the existing plan to allocate $100 billion per year to developing countries for climate change adaptation and climate change mitigation.  Reports on national communications are often several hundred pages long and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its vulnerabilities and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. lists a number of measures, including ending illegal deforestation by 2020 and increasing the share of renewable energy to 79% by 2030, up from 39% in 2010. This could be increased to 81% with international aid. It also focuses on water. Capitalism denounces capitalism as “a system of death” and rejects carbon markets. proposes to allocate the carbon budget among countries, 89% of which is devoted to developing countries. The INDC of Bolivia. commitments to reduce emissions by at least 20% from business as usual levels by 2030, provided developed countries meet their commitments on financing, technology transfer and capacity building.
The INDC of Venezuela (Spanish only). Paris Agreement, 2015. The most important global agreement to date, the Paris Agreement, obliges all countries to make commitments to reduce emissions. Governments set targets known as national contributions, with a view to preventing the average global temperature from rising by 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to strive to keep it below 1.5 degrees Celsius. It also aims to achieve zero net emissions globally, where the amount of greenhouse gases emitted is equivalent to the amount removed from the atmosphere in the second half of the century. (This is also called climate neutral or carbon neutral.) If the Paris Pact has a rating, “on the basis that we are hopeless to reach a target of 2oC, it is probably a D or an F,” says Michael Oppenheimer, climatologist and political scientist at Princeton University. At the same time, he says, the pact has made a “real difference” in helping to make climate change a “supreme concern of all countries.” Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have yet to ratify the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  Kyoto Protocol, 2005. The Kyoto Protocol [PDF], adopted in 1997 and entered into force in 2005, was the first legally binding climate treaty.
It called on industrialized countries to reduce emissions by an average of 5% from 1990 levels and set up a system to monitor countries` progress. But the treaty did not force developing countries, including the major CO2 emitters China and India, to take action. The United States signed the agreement in 1998, but never ratified it and then withdrew its signature. However, in the long run, T`s returns