Efforts have been made to introduce fair trade practices in the luxury goods industry, particularly for gold and diamonds. Producers and producer groups spend this social premium to support socio-economic development in a variety of ways. A common way to spend the social premium of fair trade is to invest in the private sector in public goods that lack infrastructure and government. These public assets include environmental initiatives, public schools and water projects. At some point, all producer groups will reinvest their social premiums on their farms and farms. They buy capital, like trucks and machinery, and education for their members, such as organic farming education. 38% of producer groups spend the social premium as a whole on themselves, but the rest invest in public goods, such as paying teachers` salaries, providing a municipal health clinic and improving infrastructure, such as the introduction of electricity and road improvements.  The Harkin Engel Protocol, also known as the Cocoa Protocol, is an international agreement that was created to end some of the worst forms of child labour in the world and forced labour in the cocoa industry. It was first negotiated by Senator Tom Harkin and MP Eliot Engel after seeing a documentary showing the widespread problem of the cocoa industry on child slavery and human trafficking. The parties approved a six-article plan: although there have been studies that have characterized fair trade as beneficial and effective, other studies were less favourable; Restrictions on the benefits of fair trade. Sometimes criticism is inherent in fair trade, sometimes efficiency depends on the broader context, such as lack of state assistance or price volatility in the global market.
 Fairtrade products are products traded from where they were grown or brought to the point of purchase and certified by a Fair Trade Certification Organization, such as Fair Trade USA or the World Fair Trade Organization. These organizations are generally monitored by Fairtrade International. Fairtrade International sets international fair trade standards and supports fair trade producers and cooperatives.  60 per cent of the fair trade market revolves around food products such as coffee, tea, cocoa, honey and bananas.  Non-food products include handicrafts, textiles and flowers. Shima Baradaran of Brigham Young University suggested that fair trade techniques could be applied productively to products that could include child labour.  Although fair trade accounts for only 0.01% of the food and beverage industry in the United States, it is growing rapidly and can become an important part of the food and beverage industry at the national level.  Consumers are often unwilling to pay the extra price of fair trade cocoa because they do not know what fair trade is.
Activist groups are essential to inform consumers of the unethical aspects of illicit trade and to encourage demand for fair trade raw materials. Activism and ethical consumption not only promote fair trade, but also act against powerful groups like Mars, Incorporated, which refuse to recognize the use of forced labour in harvesting their cocoa.  Farmers` organizations that use their social premiums for public goods often fund scholarships. For example, the Costa Rican coffee cooperative Coocafé has helped hundreds of children and adolescents at school and university by funding scholarships for its Fair Trade Social Premium. In the field of education, the social premium can also be used for the construction and equipment of schools.  According to EFTA, the defining characteristic of alternative trade organizations is fair partnership and respect – in partnership between producers and importers of the